Friday, February 11, 2011

The cobras of Iringa

THE notion of job creation and lust for money by the city militia in the form of ‘self-employment’ is now becoming a nuisance to city dwellers.

By Elias Mhegera, May 2010

The Tanzanian government has in many occasions boasted that it has created more than one million jobs which was part of the promises that President Jakaya Kiwete made during his presidential campaigns in 2005.

On Thursday Last week I was saddened by an event when one traveler from Dar es Salaam to Mbeya whom we happened to board the same bus, fallen prey of the city militia.

The ruthless militia snatched from him the little remaining pocket money that he had saved for water and lunch during his long journey back home.

In fact the city militias have now created jobs for themselves by grabbing whatever they want after any of their victims is under their total control.

By mistreating the travelers and the street hawkers ‘marching guys’ commonly known as ‘machinga’ the militia are going against the zeal of job creation by the Kikwete’s government.

This is because the employing sector is the non formal according to records within the ministry of labour. One million jobs creation was what I reported last year after being misled by the government.

Coincidently I was parroting the statement that was issued to the media by the Minister of Labour, Employment and Youth Development Prof Juma Kapuya.

I few days I later one veteran editor and commentator Karl Lyimo asked me whether what I really meant was job creation, or the media misinformed the public due to a failure to grasp the meaning of the term ‘job creation’.

The argument from the editor was that the Tanzanian government is incapable of creating one million jobs within the span of time that Kapuya had claimed confidently before journalists.

So this gave me another assignment, which is to counter-check the authenticity of Kapuya’s statement. So I had to visit Dr. Godias Kahyarara from the University of Dar es Salaam, for clarification.

Dr Kyaharara concurred with the editor, Lyimo that Kapuya misled journalists unless what he meant was something else. He claimed that even advanced countries like the United States of America can not create such a big amount of jobs within such a short prescribed time.

Therefore this sent me back to Kapuya’s ministry in order to verify their statistics, now I had to be directed to visit the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), which I actually did.

The NBS director was cooperative, and she managed to give me some literature for future references, she admitted that it was impossible (technically) for the government to create such jobs within such a short time,

But what the government did was to create conducive environment for the non-formal sector to expand leading to self employment of more than one million people!. But that she could not state openly to the media in order to avoid further confusion.

In this particular case I do not know whether I should praise the government for creating jobs to the ambitious youths who turn into street hawkers after failing to get any suitable source of income.

In order to get fund from genuine sources, the guys now are in the streets where their bitter enemy is the city militias. However there is job creation in a way through their employment, as they do behave like the ‘ruga-ruga’ type that used to exist during the colonial era in Tanganyika.

The militia whose duty is to harass the ‘machingas’ in the city, this time they had their victims including (my travel mate) pay ten thousand shillings each after they were caught urinating nearby the Ubungo Bus Terminal.

Narrating the story a youngster in his early twenties admitted that he was caught by the militia before he had finished his ‘business’. They demanded him to pay ten thousand otherwise he will end up in the court.

“I pleaded with them to take at least two thousand shillings, so that I remain with some pocket money, but they were adamant I eventually ended paying them five thousands so that I could catch up with my bus” he lamented.

So the bad omen that started with the city militia followed him in the bus, he had estimated that he will pay 20 thousands instead of 22, as this is what he had paid in his journey to Dar es Salaam from Mbeya about three previous days.

As we were approaching Kibaha he was reminded by the bus conductor that he pays the bus fare in full else he finds himself dropped at the Kibaha bus stand.

He could not hold the tears back, a sign of hopelessness, so I came to his rescue I paid the disputed two thousands shillings. But this also told me he would have travelled the whole day without quenching his thirst or even having lunch.

So I had to double my budget in rescue of the besieged young guy. I paid for all the remaining of his expenses up to Mbeya. At one point in our journey he asked me kindly, are you a pastor? I answered no; it was just a matter of rational thinking that I chose to assist you.

But one interesting thing along the way it was the unique brand of Iringa cobras. It was after we had taken our lunch at Al-Jazeera Restaurant a short distance after Ruaha after I came to know of the man-cobra found only in Tanzania probably.

I was sitting just behind the driver’s seat, and there was so much talk of the cobras between the driver and his crews. I had taken it to the ordinary type of snakes that we all know.

But it was at some point when one of the crows showed his driver one big ‘cobra’ that was lying in a nearby bush, I was fortunate to see that man-cobra!.

I could not hold it I asked the bus crews why they nicknamed the traffic police the bad name of cobra, and that is when I got the whole story of the cobras.

While a bus mechanic was narrating the story the driver took a receipt where after attending the court he was fined only five thousand shillings, instead of the fifty thousand which the traffic police had demanded when they caught him due to over speeding.

“We call them cobras because they hide in bushes with their speed detectors directed to us just like the cobra will do when hunting a goat in the bushes” said the driver amid a big laughter.

The real cobra snakes are after meat; these are after money, so they are all cobras, because even the Inspector General of Police is not aware of what is happening here.

The driver went into length complaining of notorious corruption acts along this way, he reminded of what befallen the Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation journalist Jerry Muro after he had exposed some traffic police who were taking bribes from passenger buses along the way.

Local governments' expenditure under scrutiny

IT has been established that lack of transparency in the local government operation is done deliberately in order to cheat on their expenditures according to a recent survey.June 2010

By Elias Mhegera
Speaking during the Policy Forum debate at the British Council on Friday last week, Marcossy Albanie from the Policy Forum said councilors and other relevant authorities do not like to operate transparently in order to avoid audit queries.

The theme of the debate was; The Problems of Transparency within Local Governments: Complex Issues or Simple Lack of Will? Two presentations were done in the debate.

Albanie says that power holders do not want to be answerable to their subjects because this will make them submissive to their subjects, a thing that they are not prepared to do. He was presenting a paper titled “Accessibility to Information and its Impacts to Local Government Authorities (LGAs).

He says that during the surveys that were conducted by different NGOs under the Public Expenditure Tracking System (PET), it was found that there are a lot of loopholes for resource mismanagement.

“There is poor community ownership, lack of involvement by the local communities, and difficulties in implementing plans and oversights, however there are little officials incentive to account for,” says Albanie.

Elaborating with vivid example Albanie said that in the 2007/2008 budget the Babati Council spent 396.6 millions more than what was allocated in its budget.

He cited another council which made misappropriation of funds through double allocation is Kibaha where there were double allocations of funds for health and community development departments to execute HIV/Aids activities.

Ms Esther Msuya from the Research on Poverty Alleviation, REPOA said that there is a big challenge in coordinating data and reports from the top to the grass root level. She was presenting a paper titled “Challenges in data collection, consolidation and reporting for local government authorities in Tanzania,”

“Elaborating on the challenges she said “…there are serious challenges in data desegregation, availability, quality of data and timeliness,” She cited the main problems as being in the ward education level, primary schools, and health centres.

Msuya said there are complications in getting data from one level to another due to lack of institutional capacity, lack of qualified personnel, lack of software for data manual transferring, and lack of statisticians.

She elaborated that due to lack of funding there late disbursement which in turn causes late reporting of financial reports. Moreover she attributes these complications to duplication in some cases due to poor harmonization of financial reports.

Msuya says that lack of modern technology in some areas is a discrepancy. For instance in some local government authorities there are worn out computers, there are no electronic data storage facilities and the internet facility.

She added that in some areas there are no follow ups due to poor infrastructure, poor transportation and lack of funds to support data coordination process.

Moreover she highlighted that another serious challenge is lack of training and reliable electronic network to transfer data. However there are no systems to check quality of data and follow up mechanisms.

She suggested the need of improving human resources namely; staff numbers particularly statisticians and to enhance their training. She also suggests allocation of enough funds in order to monitor properly and maintain quality assurance.

Msuys suggests availability of feedback system through information technology in order to monitor software analyses and transferring of data. This should go hand in hand with provision of modern equipment to manage properly quantity and quality.

Contributing to the debate Habraham Shamumoyo who is the secretary general of Association of Local Authorities Tanzania (ALAT) said that there is a need for a through advocacy and lobbying.

This is in order to make people in the local government areas to understand their rights, privileges so as to demand power transfer from the authorities to the local people.

“The lack of information is caused deliberately because some LGAs functionaries prefer to hide information so that they can get allowances when travelling to research or present reports in the area falling in their jurisdiction,” said Shamumoyo.

Rukonge Anatoly a participant in the debate said the LGAs and the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), are in a constant state of witch hunt which make the former to hide information which they deem could jeopardize their positions.

“The issues of hiding information is a social enigma, it is a sign of irresponsibility and ill motives in expenditure in many sectors; the government, NGOs, LGAs etc,” he said.

The non disclosure of sources of funds and their expenditures causes delays in implementation of projects, while a good number of these delays are caused by lack of commitments by some functionaries.

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

who own Dowans?

ON Saturday last week during the ceremony to mark 34 years of the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) President Jakaya disowned the controversial company Dowans and its contract altogether.

This is after so many pleas from the citizenry and from heavyweights in the Government circles. So many times the excuses have always been that a good number of senior officials in public service are ignorant of legal technicalities when signing contract.

With this kind of a situation then business studies should made compulsory courses in the secondary education syllabus, and even at tertiary institutes. This is because today business knowledge is the life blood for many activities in trying to get ahead in today's changing marketplace.

Due to the fact that employees in various sectors do not get enough salaries it is estimated that more than 60 percent of Tanzanians are involved in some sort of businesses be it big business or entrepreneurship. Even farmers and peasants need business skills in order to improve their activities.

Due to the fact that business matters are affecting all activities including politics, there is a need to empower people from all walks of life with business knowledge and legal maters related to businesses transactions.

Rescue children

THE recent incident where dead bodies dead infants were found heaped in a dumping site nearby Mwananyamala Hospital should bring more questions to sociologists and many others who feels that they are concerned.

For instance the problem could be extrapolated in other aspects like disintegration of family bonds and moral decay. These have gone hand in hand with increase in divorces.

For instance statistics collected in ten years by the Registration, Insolvency and Trusteeship Agency (RITA) had reports of registered divorces which rose to 43 in 2007/2008 year compared to 37 in the previous year.

Data collected from 1994/95 to 2007/2008 show that 2005/06 had the lowest number of registered divorces with only 28 divorces, which is a 34 per cent decline compared to the previous year.

In general there are indications that women who choose to abandon their children or even those who choose to kill them are those who do not have a guarantee of getting support from their life partners.

There is a need for finding lasting solutions to matrimonial conflicts that remove family bonds, and hence the current crises of cruelty against the innocent children, although marriage is a contract between two people, husband and wife.

Solve students' problems stop politicking

By Elias Mhegera
UP to 1991, Tanzania was still under the single party system, but even then there were constant student demonstrations. Today this country is under multiparty system so the current demonstrations are seen differently.

Recently one of the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) main propagandists Tambwe Hiza said that the demonstrations and students crises in general are instigated by opposition parties that did not make it during the last year’s General Election.

But in essence it should be understood that problems within high learning institutions stems from the fact from the outset there had never been coherent national policy to deal with higher education.

The newly created Ministry of Science, Technology, and Higher Education in 1991, was just a shock absorber following a big student strike in 1990 at the University of Dar es Salaam which saw the ‘Hill’ as the university is also known, being closed for eight months.

The then Tanzanian President Ali Hassan Mwinyi was ill advised that students were about to organize a mass movement that would have toppled him as it had happened in Rumania, Poland and Yugoslavia, the trio were under single party system as it was in this country.

Therefore there is a need to find permanent solutions in tertiary institutions rather rush into conclusions that the constant strikes are politically instigated by the opposition parties. Rather the Governemnt should take into consideration the fact that with any kind of inflation there will be a need to increase students’ allowances.

In order to allocate resources which will cater for demands of students in tertiary institutions there is a need to reduce expenditures which are not necessary. For instance mushrooming of small training centres and institutions belonging to separate ministries and parastatals is a liability to the Government.

There is poor co-ordination in the development of higher education, resulting in duplication of programmes and awards; lack of legal and regulatory framework for the establishment of new institutions and certification; low enrolments amidst the uncoordinated proliferation of institutions.

While there is an increase of tertiary institutes but there are no enough infrastructures like hostels to support accommodation for students. There are no enough preparations of lecturers and learning materials including libraries and theatres to meet the ever increasing number of students.

This need then calls for harmonization of long term plans in the provision of higher education. The council for accreditation should be empowered in order to meet these purposes. The dramatic expansion of enrolments should not compromise the quality of education.

Institutionalization of cost sharing should be a measure to reduce the burden to the Governemnt but also it should not be a catalyst to classes and gender imbalances in enrolments. Female have the right to participation in the running of their country., Tel: 0754-826272

Monday, February 7, 2011

Kikwete: Abject poverty looms despite good economic growth

Monday, September 1, 2008

By Elias Mhegera

PRESIDENT Jakaya Kikwete yesterday declared that the
country still faced the challenge of promoting economic growth
to reduce surging poverty levels that were still prevalent despite
the impressive growth rates achieved so far.

In his address to the nation through the Parliament, the
President addressed several key areas that covered the state of
the economy, Union matters, the issue of Muafaka, corruption,
leadership code, judiciary, and women integration in the
political process.

He said some of the challenges to economic
growth were due to natural catastrophes and shortages that
were not anticipated before. “The noise that the public
is making about increased costs of living is not out of the blue,
it is justifiable,” said President Kikwete, who acknowledged
the difficult economic and social conditions people were now

He outlined the factors that had led to these conditions
as including the energy crisis that had brought about sharp
increases of oil prices and the 2006 drought that hit the
country hard, leading to scarcity of electricity.

The President also hinted at other economic challenges like global inflation,
which, he said, had been on the increase since the fourth phase
government came to power.

Saturday, February 5, 2011

48 hours in Bagamoyo

It was at Pumbuji, which literally means wetland, that they made their
first settlement. The area was suitable for both habitation and
agriculture. It was also suitable as a port for their dhows Ms Rosalia Buretta,tour guidess, Bagamoyo.

By Elias Mhegera

An interesting episode of the history there explains how eventually
the name Kaole came about. Thanks for this to Ms Rosalia Buretta, a
friendly host at the site, whose selection by the Ministry of Tourism
was not just an accident.

She managed to bring back the history of the place vividly to my eyes,
as if the Arabs had left just recently. The natives were surprised by
the daily shouting when their visitors were making the calls that
summon you to prayer, from the Arabs they never knew what next to

So they said “tukaole waarabu vino atendile” which simply means: let
us go and see what these Arabs are doing, hence the name “Kaole”, so
the area which used to be known as Pumbuji now assumed the name Kaole.

The whole of Bagamoyo, whose name came from
“bwagamoyo” meaning “lay down your heart”, has a lot to tell in

The story goes that there was an Arab couple who died in a sea
accident but their bodies were recovered, while hugging as if they
were alive. Their grave is frequently visited on Valentine’s Day, in order to seek their blessing for other couples of beloved.

There is Sharifa’s grave, this is the grave of a girl who died at the age of 13, while still a virgin. It is assumed that she had certain powers that were unique for a person of her age. She could predict things which eventually
happened exactly the way she had foretold.

Moreover it is a fact that there is a deep well which has survived
since the 13th century. It is believed that the well has waters that
are blessed; people do indeed come to fetch this water for washing and
drinking in order to clean their bodies and spirits as well.

If you thought that I am over with Kaole you are wrong! There is the
baobab which historians say has existed in the area for over 500 years
now. Nor to forget the artifacts; these were excavated by archeologist
Nivle Chittick in 1959.

But while moving back to the new Bagamoyo town; please do visit the Mamba (crocodile) ranch where you will find more than 130 of them, this is also a good site for picnic purposes (-make sure you avoid being the crocodiles’ picnic yourself!).

So my next stopover was at the prestigious Bagamoyo College of Arts,
currently it has assumed a new name, Taasisi ya Sanaa na Utamaduni
Bagamoyo (TaSUBa). This is iconic in the area, as a cultural centre.

From TaSUBa my next stop was at the Old Fort, a building which
has served different purposes and regimes. It started as the residence
of an Arab sultan. My host was Ms Rachel Simon, the conservator of
antiquities and of all of what today is known as Mji Mkongwe.

Rachel ushers me inside the fort, which was built in 1860 by Abdallah
Suleiman Marhabi; she says this was both a residential and an office
building. Later on the ownership was transferred to Sultan Seyyid
Said, in 1870.

The ownership remained so until 1885, when the Germans turned the
building into a military base. The Germans constructed the third floor
of it, to which the British added a top roof.

The Old Fort assumed different names accordingly, from German Fort,
to British Fort. It was turned into a prison by the British and
remained so throughout their tenure.

The newly formed government under Julius Nyerere also accepted the
fort remaining a prison from 1961 until ‘74, when it was turned into a
police station. This was the situation until 1991.

Bagamoyo is not complete if there is no mention of the Caravanserai,
which was the last destination of slaves before they were shipped off
on long safaris, particularly to the sugar plantations on the Reunion

The journey is not complete if one does not visit the St. Elizabeth Mission, which has a museum rich in artifacts and archives.

My host there was Fr. Daniel Bouj who said that the museum, which was recently rehabilitated, started with a single idea from Fr Versteijnen
Menschel, who was teaching the history of the church at the Bagamoyo
Seminary, and who saw the need of preserving the history of Bagamoyo
for future generations.

At the mission stands the oldest building, that was built as a house
for the missionaries in 1872. The whole of the mission indeed suits
many purposes apart from worship, this is also a learning, historical
and tourist centre.

Indeed in Bagamoyo there are tourist attractions that cater for both
indigenous people and foreigners. Talking about tourist hotels, you
are talking of many such places like the Travelers Lodge, Millennium
Park, Palm Tree Village and many others, just be there!

Natural resource turns a curse in Loliondo

PHOTO: Animals in Loliondo and the Maasai indegenous people now in constant threats of eviction

Who is saying the truth in Loliondo?

By Elias Mhegera and Onesmo Olengurumwa

The Vice President of the Ngorongoro Elites Association (NDUSA), Onesmo Olengurumwa has condemned deliberate disturbances of the pastoralists in the area and distortion by some media segments.

Olengurumwa who spoke to The Express by a phone from Ngorongoro District said that the district is one of the richest districts in Tanzania in terms of natural resources, which has made it a centre of resource based conflicts.

He said this has caused not only disturbance but also poverty to Ngorongoro dwellers in a district which produces more than 50 billion per year. He cited the Ngorongoro Conservation Authority which collects about 40 billion per year but the District Council does not receive any distribution for the development of its people.

The human rights activist and assistant researcher at the Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC), in Dar es Salaam, say Ngorongoro local communities are weakened in favour of investors.

“This is polarization of wealth and poverty at two opposite extremes. It is all sheer robbery, criminal plunder of the weak by the strong,” he commented.

He criticized the condemnation of pastoralists and cultivators as simply trouble-mongers, who must be dealt with, a trend which has never ceased since 1992 when OBC acquired village land in Loliondo.

The lawyer said that the mushrooming of tourism related investments are the corner stone of the resource based conflict in Ngorongoro. He lambasted the fact that citizens from the grass root levels are not involved in the policy making.

He therefore referred the Loliondo case as just one of those ‘Natural Resource Curse’, since the indigenous people do not benefit from the natural resources around them. “The rights to exercise permanent sovereignty over natural resources have been put in jeopardy in Ngorongoro ever since,” he commented.

Elaborating further Olengurumwa said the parasitic stratum between investors through government officials revealed the way natural resource curse play a role to endlessly resource based conflicts in Ngorongoro and in Africa in general.

He was surprised that the Masaai have lived and preserved the nature for many years but today they are termed as destroyers of the environment.

Defending the pastoralists he asked in astonishment “who is killing Loliondo between the pastoralists and investors like OBC?” he said that the answer to this question is simple; it is investment activities on the land that kill the nature of Loliondo but not the pastoralists.

He further elaborated that wild animals and livestock have been in many years in coexistence, he was therefore surprised that today the agents of investors stand and mislead the public about the current situation in Loliondo.

He was reacting to a series of reports that were published by a Kiswahili daily tabloid recently which he claims had a one sided version that the pastoralists were causing trouble in Loliondo.

The Minister for Tourism Ezekiel Mayige visited the area in order to find an amicable solution to the problem. He promised that the government will give fair treatment to both the pastoralists and the investors.


PHOTO:Heritage Hotel in Arusha, how do you find it?

THEY call it A-Town, this is one of the most cosmopolitan towns in this country, except for its population, but it deserves the title of city in many ways.

By Elias Mhegera

I had a one-week assignment in that town, but having before that stayed in Dar es Salaam for quite some time, I had never realized how the weather could be different by such a surprising magnitude.

On the first day of my visit I realized that I ought to have taken my coat or jacket along in preparation for the chilly weather of A-Town. So it was on that very day that I realized that I was in quite a different world from Dar es Salaam.

After having stayed for three days I phoned my boss asking him to let me remain in Arusha for the rest of my working life.

But then, why did I have this sudden change of attitude? Yes, it was because I came to realize it was no longer worthwhile living in Dar es Salaam city.

I realized living in Dar es Salaam is tantamount to legitimizing a self-imposed condemnation to hell, while still alive.

In Dar es Salaam, the city, full of both commercial and entrepreneurial opportunities, is now overloaded. So the new land of opportunity should be Arusha!

While I am used to walking with three handkerchiefs in my pocket in Dar es Salaam, in Arusha I even forgot to put even one in my pocket for almost my entire visit.

But that is not everything, not at all, it was the traditional food that also attracted me. After having visited Kenny Garden I was introduced to a special brand of soup, nicknamed by the town-dwellers “mchemsho-trupa”.

Once having tasted the sweet stew from that stuff I was prompted to call the bar manager in order to understand why their soup was quite different from other brands that I have been encountering.

My hostess was an elegant-looking lady in her mid-twenties; her name is Ms Khadija Said. So I had the best of luck to be allowed a meeting by the bar owner for she had a very tight schedule due to an ever-increasing number of customers.

Now tell me Khadija what does the name ‘trupa’ mean? I did not bother to ask the word mchemsho because it is a common name almost throughout the whole of this country.

They call it trupa because it is a combination of so many spices, which brings about the final product, a sweet stew which is not common in other places.

“We have two types of trupa mchemsho, chicken and beef soup, the prices vary accordingly, ten thousand for chicken and nine thousand for beef,” said Khadija.

She said Arusha has so many customers, being a busy town, both as a tourist centre, the biggest in the whole of Tanzania and probably the second after Nairobi, for the whole of Eastern and Central Africa.

So I came to realize that there are six other places with such a sweet soup, namely; Night Park, City Park, Family Club, Florida Bar, Galaxy Club and Picnic Bar.

But my earlier planned last evening in Arusha was even more interesting, I had almost forgotten that one of my best friends is working in Arusha.

It was just by “mere accident” that I almost collided with him nearby the Gymkhana Club, as he was rushing there for his daily exercise in the evening.

Inside the club we were received by its chairman, Richard Gomes, who jovially said his club is in the final stages of the construction of a gym and a swimming pool.

So I had to stay one more day in order to make full advantage of the tourist attractions within the limits of my financial ability.

That same evening my friend offered me dinner at the Lively Lady, Bar and Grill. The small place is unique in several ways.

Located in Station road, opposite the railway station is the place where people meet for roast meat, “nyama choma”.

The owner, Pally Singh, said his place has turned out to be an attraction of a kind that he did not expect. “In order to reduce customers I have had to hike the prices,” he boasted.

For instance, while beer sells at Tsh 1400 in the common bars I sell the same at Tsh 2500, all this is to ensure I maintain a certain standard in my customers.

So the following day I had the occasion to visit almost all the beautiful places that one can mention in Arusha, from Cultural Heritage Hotel, Naura Springs, Impala Hotel, to Ngurdoto.

It was in Naura that I met an elegant blonde, Ms Nsia Swai, who is the marketing and guest relations manager, who introduced me to some of her workmates, and she was boasting of quality services at the three constituent hotels, the others being Impala and Ngurdoto.


Predictions on Kikwete, May 2010

PHOTO: A photograph of President Kikwete and CHADEMA's Chairman Mr. Freeman Mbowe during the Law Day Wednesday February 02, it brought alot of contraversy of course

LACK of support from his aides has led to the unsatisfying performance of the Fourth Phase President Jakaya Kikwete according to the recent media survey in Mbeya urban. May 2010

By Elias Mhegera

IN a survey that was sponsored by HakiElimu 30 people forms a cluster sample of the interviewees, from different age groups, social strata and religious inclination.

The survey involved people from the 15 wards of the Mbeya urban constituency. Namely Iyela, Iyunga, Itiji, Forest, Sisimba, Mabatini, Mwanjelwa, Soweto, and Soko Matola.

Other areas that were surveyed are Ilomba, Mwakibete, Mbugani and Mbalizi. The sample of interviewees involved civil servants like teachers, nurses, drivers, secondary school students (A-level) and university students.

According to the survey 60 percent graded President Kikwete’s performance below 50 percent, while 40 percent graded him above 60.

The statistics stands as follows one person graded him with 10-20 percent, four graded him with 21-30 percent, and six graded him 31-40 percent while seven graded him with 41-50 percent.
On the contrary four graded him 51-60 percent, four graded him with 61-70, while three graded him with 71-80 percent and one person graded him with 81-90 percent.

The modal class according to this study was seven people with 41-50 percent. The modal class constitutes 21 percent of the interviewed sample.

As to what the incumbent president will scoop during the forthcoming general elections the results were more or less the same if the national electoral commission was to do justice, and if the competition environment will be fair.

Generally interviewees gave president Kikwete victory at 70 percent. They graded their incumbent Member of Parliament, Benson Mwailugula Mpesya at 40 percent.

There were variations on how they graded their councilors while they graded themselves at 40 percent in terms of the civic awareness.

On what went well with the Fourth Phase Government

Interviews accepted that there are some positive developments in terms of infrastructural development, particularly construction of roads, schools, and modern buildings although at a low speed in comparison to the Third Phase Government.
President Kikwete was lauded due to his good treatment of leaders of opposition political parties and that he has opened a space for vibrant discussions in both the media and informed forums.

He is also lauded for his commitment in sports as reflected by the employment of an international stature Taifa Stars coach Marcio Maximo.

The president was also praised by a segment of women interviewees on the fact he has been in the forefront to ensure that there is gender parity by employing some women in key government positions like judges, ministers, ambassadors etc.

His government’s weaknesses
According to the interviewee sample 60 percent criticizes the president for having made an enormous amount of promises which could not be fulfilled.

He is also criticized by the same percentage for his failure to handle the ruling party in his capacity as chairman leading to factions that eventually paralyzed performance of his government.

The percentage of those who criticized foreign trips by the president stood at 30 percent of the interviewees, while those who criticized him for inaction against those who have been I implicated in grand corruption scandals stood at 60 percent.

What were Mbeya residents expecting from the fourth phase government?
According to the survey the extent of fulfillment was judged according to one’s wellbeing in their activities whether in the public sector or in the private sector.

For instance employees were not satisfied by the government’s promise on improving their life through payment of good salaries that match with their demands. This was repeated by all the civil servants that were interviewed during this survey.

For the entrepreneurs their cry was that the taxi regime is unfriendly and that the road infrastructure did not undergo fundamental changes. They were also expecting president Kikwete to manage well the economy and curb inflation which they say his government did not.

Mbeya residents are unsatisfied due to the fact that they do not realize profits in their businesses to the extent that they can not re-invest whatever they accrue from their businesses.

“We do have Mbeya Cement within our close range but we can not construct new buildings because of high prices of construction materials including cements” complained one entrepreneur.

They also commented that the CCM government failed to implement the poverty reduction strategy (MKUKUTA) and for the Muslims the introduction of the Islamic Kadhi court which was part of the CCM election manifesto during the 2005 general elections.

Factors that might have influenced these results
Mbeya is the fourth city in the country tailing behind Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, and Tanga. It has almost all the modern city communication infrastructure with reliable television coverage, Mbeya based radio stations and daily delivery newspapers.

The level of civic awareness is comparatively very high although the residents in that area do not realize this. Probably this level of awareness has been contributed by their access to the media.

According to this survey there are five Mbeya based radio three of them run programmes on civic education namely; Bomba FM, Generation FM, and Baraka FM.

Mbeya urban is one of the constituencies which elected a member of parliament from the opposition namely; one Polisya Mwaiseje against the CCM candidate the late Bruno Mpangala.

The city is running a cosmopolitan life style with a big number of visitors from neighboring countries like Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia and the Democratic republic of Congo.

Hence the level of lifestyle reflects that there is a big middle class from the urban elite, employees in the civil service private legal practitioners, bankers, industrial workers and the entrepreneur who have access to information.

There is a growing disappointment from the city residents due to the appointment of the regional commissioner John Mwakipesile who lost to Dr Harrison Mwakyembe in Kyela during the 2005 general elections.

Although the regional commissioner is lauded for his good work but some city residents feel as if he is focused more in recapturing the Kyela seat than working for his region as a whole.

Mbeya residents who constitute a big segment of civil servants admitted that they were irked by President Kiwete’s speech against the Trade Union Congress of Tanzania (TUCTA) on May 3 this year.

Some sensible Tanzanian sayings

Some sensible Tanzanian sayings (metaphors)

By Elias Mhegera

1. Chekuenda chethi kuthoba –
From Pare-Kilimanjaro region
Meaning: When one is destined to falling down there is no way you can resist.
Context: The saying means to console whenever relatives have tried to rescue their beloved one without success.

2. We mwana hena chekuhete-
From Pare
Meaning: You child, whoever does not listen to their elders they are doomed to failure
Context: These are words used by parents whenever they are almost despairing because of their children’s bad behaviours.
3. Omuzele tatanaka asesemkwa
From Zinza-Mwanza region
Meaning: A parent can only feel nausea they never vomit
Context: It used to console parents who are almost giving up after being frustrated by their children because of bad behaviuors.

4. Fujaga ndimu, otizo fuja nhola
From Sukuma-Mwanza
Meaning: Do miss an antelope, not a life partner
Context: This metaphor is used to warn young people who are about to be married to be careful with the choice of their life partners (sposes).
5. Omubhisa bhisa burwaire ikililo kilambura
From the Zanaki, Mara region
Meaning: Whoever hides sickness will be exposed by death
Context: Whoever does not want to share their problems they finally end up in pain.

6. Mwana tegereza wakulu dokulongela dinoga
From the Kwere, Coast region
Meaning: Listen to the elders whatever they say is sensible.
Context: Whenever the youths are adamant in not listening to the parents they area told such words.

7. Mtizalizala biteka kalilimile mtizalilonga ubite ukalinyamalile.
From the Gogo, Dodoma region
Meaning: If you want to get rid of famine go and cultivate, if you want to get rid of fussy (noise) remain mum.
Context: deal with things that are productive, do not waste your time in trivial matters.

8. Malogo gagwa chibiteku usumi masigawa yetu
From Gogo
Meaning: Youths, our land is now dry you should seek for greener pastures from our neighbours.
Context: These are words used to encourage grown ups to practice self-reliance somewhere else rather than depend on their parents.

9. Mwanangu kalagale wavya gana
From Gogo
Meaning: My child you have grown up, the world is not that kind.
Context: These are words that are used to warn children that do not want to listen to their parents by taking things for granted.
10. Twebhapina tuungataganaga
From Gogo
Meaning: we the poor should unite
Context: These are words of encouragement in order to help a fellow who is not well to do from their colleagues of a similar social status.
11. Mukahadeha yakojela mbeho
From Gogo
Meaning: The lazy
12. Mwanangu upilikisyege isyabhakusi
From Nyakyusa, Mbeya region
Meaning: Listen to the grown ups, their words are meaningful.
Context: These are words that are aimed at shaping youths who have gone astray.

13.Lingukopile fyabanhu ubhujisyaga
From Nyakuysa again
Meaning: Once you lend things from other people you must remember to return those.
Context: When one is in trouble by failing to return other people’s belongings.

14.Wakumwana chilambo vanhu
From Makonde, Mtwara
Meaning: One needs to maintain good relations with people in order to strive smoothly
Context: These are words used to warn people who fail to maintain good relations with their colleagues in various settings.


Biblical Relationships

Let us discuss religion


Most of us have learned Bible teaches us mainly about two things....

1. The first is our relationship with God.

2. The second is our relationship with one another.

Every book in the bible deals with these two relationships.

Almost everything that I talk about from this pulpit concerns our relationship with God. That is a good thing to talk about!

Tonight though, I want to begin a new series concerning our relationship ourselves and with others.

We are going to address relationships that deal with the husband, the wife, friends, and family, communication...but I want to begin this series tonight by talking about understanding yourself!

The first key to understanding yourself is to understand...

• Who you are.
• Where you come from.
• Where you are going.
• What is your purpose.

...before you can be successful in any must be able to understand yourself!

Before you can be successful in your relationship with God you must be able to understand yourself!

Tell the person next to you..."I am about to find out who I am."

The bible says....
James 1:17-18
17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning.
18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures.

James, Jesus half brother, wrote this.

Very quickly in his writings, he begins to talk about who we are....

• He begins by stating, "Every perfect gift is from above, from God the one who created light, and from the one who can never change."

James is setting up his next statement in this verse.

In the very next verse, James says, "God brought us to life by His word, and we became His most precious possession."

In two verses, James tells you who you are, and where you came from!

• God brought you into this world.
o It doesn't matter what the earthly circumstances of your birth were.
o You were not a mistake.
o You were not an accident.
o God put you right where you are for a purpose.
o God brought you into this world.

That's where you came from!

• The bible says that you are a perfect gift from above.
o That cannot change.
o There is no variableness or shadow of turning about that!
o You are the most prized possession of God.
o You are the apple of His eye.

That is who you are today!

Somebody say, "I know who I am!"

Then James goes on to say that it is not good enough to hear who we are, but we must become who we were born to be!

James 1:22-25
22 But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves.
23 For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass:
24 For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was.
25 But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.

There is a lot to swallow in those four verses!

James makes it easy for us to understand though...he compares it to looking in the mirror.

How many of you like to look in the mirror? Don't raise your hand.

o The mirror doesn't tells the truth every time.

o I liked the mirror a lot more when I was 25 than I do today.

I looked in the mirror a lot in those days...

o I did my hair.
o Shaved.
o Brushed my teeth.
o Tied my tie.

And then I stepped back to admire the beautiful sight...just kidding.

Then I walked away and came back five minutes later to make sure everything was just the mirror was lying to me or something.
Don't laugh at me, you know exactly what I am talking about! Some of you go back to the mirror seven, eight, nine and ten times before you leave the house.

It is like you forgot what you looked like ten minutes earlier.

That is exactly James point...

James 1:23-24
23 For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass:
24 For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was.

The reason that some of us struggle so much in our relationships is because we forget who we are...

o I can preach to you about being the prize of God's possession till I am blue in the face.
o You can hear me and agree with me all night long.
o But if you forget who you are between now and Sunday when the enemy starts messing with is not going to do you any good.

James says, some of us are like that person who constantly has to look in the mirror to make sure they are good enough.

You know what your problem is tonight?

o Some you have forgotten what you look like!
o Some of you have forgotten who your father is!
o Some of you don't remember where you came from!

It is time for somebody to go beyond the hearing, and start believing.
It is time for somebody to start becoming who you are.

25 But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.
James said, don't look in the mirror, look in the word...the word is your mirror!

Take it to the next level...don't just hear the preacher, but believe him and put it into action!

o You are the apple of God's eye.
o You the crown of His creation.
o You are not an accident.
o God didn't make any mistakes.
o You are a perfect gift from God.

o Satan has no power over you.
o The enemy can't mess with you...Unless you let him.

Can I get a witness in the house tonight?

Since you are a perfect gift from God, it is important to understand that you are unique!

There ain't nobody else like you in this entire world!

David said...

Ps 139:14-16
14 I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Marvelous are Your works, And that my soul knows very well.
15 My frame was not hidden from You, When I was made in secret, And skillfully wrought in the lowest parts of the earth.
16 Your eyes saw my substance, being yet unformed. And in Your book they all were written, The days fashioned for me, When as yet there were none of them.

o You were fearfully and wonderfully made.
o God knows every part of you...everything about you was recorded while you were in the womb.

Not only are you unique in creation, you are unique in purpose.

God has a unique purpose for your life!

o Nobody can take your place...You are unique.
o Nobody can talk like are unique.
o Nobody can sing like are unique.

Isaiah 43:6-7
6 I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth;
7 Even every one that is called by my name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.

We were created for the glory of God!

o God's glory is the beauty and power of His Spirit.

o We were created then to show God's glory...his beauty and his all of the earth.

That is our purpose!

We are earthly vessels that contain His Glory!

We reveal His Glory to this world through our unique abilities...through our unique characteristics that were given from God.

o In other words...I can't sing like my wife...she reveals Gods glory through song...the beauty of music. She is unique in that way.

o I try to reveal God's glory through the spoken word.

There are many ways that each one of us can show God's glory to this world.

o Love for one another.
o Compassion.
o Humility.
o Servant hood.
Another way that we can all show God's glory is by our testimony! Our witness!

o Your personality is unique.
o So your testimony is unique!

You don't have to do it like Bro. Church, or Bro. Smith, or Bro. Matt Maddix.

But you do have to do it! You are called to be a witness!

1 Peter 2:9
9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:

We are called to show people how He called us out of darkness! We cannot hide our light!

Nobody else can reach the people that you are called to are unique.

There are a lot of people that will listen to your testimony, but they won't listen to my testimony, and they won't listen to Bro. Smith's testimony.

o Nobody else goes where you go.
o Nobody else works where you work.
o Nobody else has the friends that you have.

Listen now...and nobody else can witness like you can witness.

God had given you the unique ability to reach the people in your life!

If you don't reach those people...who will reach them... You are the only one who can reach are unique!

God placed you where you are for a purpose.

I can't take your place, and you can't take my are unique.

When I look at my own children...same father...same mother...yet so different...unique.

o As much as they look like me, my image, my wife's image...God has also made them in His Image!
o As much as Barrett wants to be like Davis, he can never be because God has already made him perfectly unique.

He has in own personality.
He has his own smile.
He has his own frown.

And it is the same way for each of us!

God made us that way and He understands our differences!

Matthew 25:15
15 And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey.

Don't be jealous of the talents that somebody else has...God made them that way.

And if you will use what God has given you...He will bless you with more.

Remember what out text said...

James 1:25
25 But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.

If you start doing what God has created you to do you will be blessed!

Can I get a witness of that in the house tonight?

So God made each of us unique, and God loves us that way.
His love is unconditional...

John 3:16
16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

God's love for you is unconditional...we are the object of His affection.

I didn't say that God loves it when you mess up and sin...but His love for you is unconditional.

I know you have heard that before.

The important thing tonight is to remember what I am telling you....that is what it really means to understand yourself.

Remember where you came from.

Don't forget who you are when you leave this house tonight!

o Our problem is that we forget who we are.
o We forget where we came from.
o We forget what our purpose is.

Do you know who you are tonight?

The reason people backslide is because they forget who they really are!

The prodigal son took his inheritance and left his family and home behind.

He erased the memory of his past.

o He became somebody that he was not.
o Instead of staying true to who he was, the bible actually says that he joined himself to a citizen of another country.
o He forgot who he was...and became another person, living a life he did not know.
After a time of living like that, and when his money was all gone, the bible says...

Luke 15:17
17 And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!

When he came to day he woke up!

One morning....

o He remembered who he used to be...
o He remembered where he came from...
o He remembered who his father was...

Oh does anybody remember who your daddy is tonight.

Do you know who you are ?

It dawned on the prodigal that he needed to go back home...even if it had to be as a servant.

So he heads back home to his father...

Luke 15:20-24
20 And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.
21 And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.
22 But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:
23 And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry:
24 For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.

You might not think you are worthy to be called a child of God tonight...but if you will just give God a chance...

o He will bring out the best robe.
o He will bring out the fatted calf.
o He will throw a grand celebration.

...because you are one of His...a child of the King of Kings and the Lord of Lords! He loves you more than anything.

o Do you remember who you are tonight?
o Do you remember when God baptized you with the Holy Ghost and fire.
o Do you remember when you took on His name at baptism.

You have been purchased with the blood of Jesus Christ, and you are not your own....he is Abba Father to you!

It is time for somebody to start being who God called you to be tonight!

After Sudan secession should not be fashionable

PHOTO: Southern Sudan leader Salva Kiir
By Elias Mhegera-January 2011
ALTHOUGH the decision for people in the Southern Sudan will be received wholeheartedly but there are warnings that secession could become a new trend in Africa

Speaking to The Express exclusively, is senior lecturer in development studies at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Prof Benedict Mongula who says it is not strange to see that Southern Sudanese will decide to secede due to internal dynamics of that vast nation.

He revisit the problem in a historical dimension saying that it has to a large extent been caused by the problem of distribution of populations during the scramble and partition of the African continent of 1984-85.

The don says the partition of Africa did not consider many factors like ethnic distribution, culture and religion. He says to a large extent Sudan had all these complexities which have made the country to run in turmoil from time to time.

Mongula says every citizen must have a right to determine what is better for them. For that matter it is good that they secede and later on they can negotiate in a new form of federation which is both fair and equitable to the two sides he reminds the extreme cases of shariah to the non Muslims during the era of Jaffar Nimeir.

This view is shared by Dr Aleck Chemponda a former lecturer at the UDSM, in international relations. He says the people of Southern Sudan have a right to secede since they have been humiliated in their own country for quite sometime.

Dr Chemponda however is quick to warn that other people might imitate and make secession a new political phenomenon in Africa. Already there are similar secession attempts by Kabinda in Angola where there is a Chinese presence as in South Sudan, and in the Copper Belt in Zambia there are similar attempts.

John Salaita a retired lecturer in international relations and global peace studies says the move is positive and negative, Positive in the sense that circumstances in southern Sudan were beyond toleration but also it is negative because of its spill over effect.

He concurs with the previous commentators that there are many areas in Africa waiting for the final results of the Sudan polls in order to apply for the same in their own countries.

Due to the Chinese presence in this area there are speculations that if Southern Sudan gains independence, there is threat of renewed North-South fighting, as well as internecine conflict in the South.

The vote may also inspire separatists in Angola’s oil-rich Kabinda province, fomenting instability in another African country where China has significant economic interests and a large worker presence. Other places that might follow suite are Western Sahrawi, Somaliland, and some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Preliminary results of the polls indicate that an independent state for southern Sudan’s eight million people would come into existence on July 9 under the peace agreement signed in 2005.

The latest incomplete and provisional figures that have been released show that 99.23 per cent of ballots in the region’s ten southern states – 3.36 million people – have plumped for separation, from 92.5 per cent of votes processed so far.

An earlier official website release from the independent electoral body calculated from 83.4 per cent of southern votes and all overseas and northern polls, showed 98.6 per cent were in favour of secession.

It is also rumoured that the Southern Sudan secession might have also been influenced by external pressure although the black people had suffered a lot under the Arab dominated administration from the North.
The Carter Center observation mission has congratulated the people of Sudan for the successful conduct of the historic referendum on self-determination, which was marked by an overwhelming turnout of enthusiastic voters during a peaceful and orderly seven-day voting period.
It says the referendum process implements a major pillar of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), and represents the realization of the aspirations of the people of Southern Sudan to determine their political future.
The Center acknowledges that the referendum process to date is broadly consistent with international standards for democratic elections and represents the genuine expression of the will of the electorate.
According to the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC) and to reports of observers and others, it appears that the 60 percent turnout threshold required for a valid vote was reached several days before the end of the polling period.

In addition, based on early reports of vote counting results, it appears virtually certain that the results will be in favor of secession. The Carter Center has commended the SSRC and the Southern Sudan Referendum Bureau (SSRB) for their determination to implement a successful referendum despite very short timelines and logistical challenges.
It has also recognized the critical roles played by the United Nations Integrated Referendum and Elections Division (UNIRED), the International Foundation of Electoral Systems (IFES), and other international partners to assist Sudanese referendum authorities.

The Carter Center mission noted the following key findings during the referendum process: that the voting period between Jan. 9-15 resulted in an overwhelming turnout of voters who cast their ballots in an atmosphere that mixed enthusiasm.
While voter turnout in the South was overwhelming, nearing 100 percent in several locations, in the North, participation in registration and voter turnout was significantly lower.

Long distances and a lack of transportation to the referendum sites may have contributed to this result; the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) also encouraged Southerners living in the North to come home to register and vote.

Museveni bemoans corruption

Tanzania: Museveni bemoans corruption
Author: Elias Mhegera, Dar es Salaam Date Written: 12 May 2009
Primary Category: Eastern Region Document Origin: The Citizen, Dar es Salaam
Secondary Category: Africa General Source URL:
Key Words: Tanzania, corruption, leaders, development, natural resources,
African Charter Article #21: All peoples shall freely dispose of their wealth and natural resources for their exclusive interest, eliminating all forms of foreign economic exploitation. (Click for full text...)

African Charter Article #21

1. All peoples shall freely dispose of their wealth and natural resources. This right shall be exercised in the exclusive interest of the people. In no case shall a people be deprived of it.

2. In case of spoliation the dispossessed people shall have the right to the lawful recovery of its property as well as to an adequate compensation.

3. The free disposal of wealth and natural resources shall be exercised without prejudice to the obligation of promoting international economic cooperation based on mutual respect, equitable exchange and the principles of international law.

4. States parties to the present Charter shall individually and collectively exercise the right to free disposal of their wealth and natural resources with a view to strengthening African unity and solidarity.

5. States parties to the present Charter shall undertake to eliminate all forms of foreign economic exploitation particularly that practiced by international monopolies so as to enable their peoples to fully benefit from the advantages derived from their national resources.

Summary & Comment: President Museveni berates Africa’s leaders for not doing more to tackle corruption in Africa. In his address to the University of Dar es Salaam, Museveni told his audience that African leaders could have done more to avoid conflict in places like Rwanda. Foreign mining interests in Tanzania were also targetted as exploiting African people. DH

Museveni bemoans corruption

The lack of transparency and mismanagement of resources by African leaders is to blame for the continent's troubles, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni has said.
Speaking at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) yesterday, the Ugandan leader criticised the African leadership for being corrupt and incompetent. "They have neglected their duties, and are embracing what they are not supposed to. They do not have a direction," Mr Museveni said while launching the university's College of Arts and Social Sciences (CASS). He urged his peers to protect their resources, and not to leave foreign investors exploit Africa's natural resources. Despite being the richest continent in the world, in terms of mineral and natural resources, Africa is still regarded as the poorest and most disenfranchised place on earth. While the West has largely been blamed for capitalising on corrupt and inept African leaders, China is also widely seen as a new frontier in the exploitation of Africa's natural resources.

However, its engagement in Africa is still dwarfed by the US and European countries, and often smaller than that of other Asian countries. Mr Museveni, who is one of the longest serving presidents in the continent, said African leaders "are weak and disorganised." He said it was because of their incompetence and weakness that they had allowed "colonialists to penetrate and rule Africa, taking away its resources freely." "You cannot negotiate from a point of weakness, true negotiation is possible only if there is balanced power. That is why the Chinese can negotiate with Americans, but Africans cannot," he said.

In Tanzania, the Government has of late come under fire for dubiously opening up to foreign mining investors who are also accused of evading taxes and looting resources with impunity. Most of the major mines in the country have been privatised to foreign investors, and the Government has apparently ignored proposals by several mining committees to review its mining policy. Mr Museveni warned his fellow leaders against taking the "begging syndrome" too far saying it was weakening the continent?s bargaining power in global affairs. He said there was need for African leaders to "rethink and regain" their vision for the continent and assume control of their nations instead of living at the mercy of Western donors.

The Ugandan leader also challenged his peers to be proactive in addressing problems affecting the continent. He cited the 1994 Rwanda genocide saying African leaders had a chance to stop the massacre had they intervened in time.
"They were aware of what was going on in Rwanda all this time but chose to be silent and watched from a distance," said the Ugandan president. He said the same neglect spurred conflict in Burundi until a few leaders like Tanzania's founding president, the late Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, decided to intervene. Mr Museveni also criticised his colleagues for ignoring Uganda while the former Ugandan dictator Iddi Amin "killed his own people until he was stopped by Nyerere."

His remarks echo what Nigerian renowned scholar Prof Wole Soyinka said last month at the university that African leaders had a tendency to ignore the excesses of their colleagues. Prof Soyinka who was speaking during the Julius Nyerere Intellectual Festival Week cited the chaos in Kenya last year, and the situation in Zimbabwe, which had been ignored for over a decade. "It is high time African leaders change their attitude and act whenever there is a problem in other countries," Mr Museveni said. The Ugandan leader and President Jakaya Kikwete are UDSM alumni. The two are former students in the university's Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, which has been revamped into a college.

Meanwhile, UDSM students took advantage of the launch ceremony to send the message that their bitterness over the Government's refusal to scrap cost-sharing in student loans was far from over. The students booed off the minister for Education and Vocational Training, Prof Jumanne Maghembe, when he was called to invite President Museveni to officially open the college. In contrast, they cheered when Foreign Affairs minister Bernard Membe was introduced. So tense was the situation that the organisers had to change protocol and instead asked UDSM vice chancellor Prof Rwekaza Mukandala to invite President Museveni.

Apparently, students blame Prof Maghembe for the Government's position not to give them 100 per cent loan. They often accuse the minister of being insensitive to their plight. Last year, the loans conflict caused a series of class boycotts and strikes that forced the closure of six public universities and colleges.


Step down Mubarak

Egypt's president Mubarak should step down because people are tired of him

By Elias Mhegera
AFRICAN countries including Tanzania should learn from events in North Africa and the Middle East calling for major political reforms including resignation of their leaders.

In Egypt pro-democracy leader Mohamed ElBaradei, better known in the West as the former director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, joined the street protests.

In Friday last week the riot police had an up hill task to contain the biggest protests in three decades in Cairo. El-Baradei is considered a contender to unseat longtime Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

The turbulent situation in the Middle East is expected to have severe social consequences not only within those countries but also throughout the continent.

For instance within a very short time after the unrest situation occurred the prices of oil peaked up. No matter what happens in the Middle East, but all countries must study the situation carefully before deciding what to partake as a remedial to the problem.

There are indications that the youths are the most desperate in Tanzania. Local governments threaten to push the problem even higher after tough scuffles against the street hawkers the “machinga.”

The immediate solution therefore is not imposing curfew against them but find how they can be introduced to a series of shock absorbers. Let this be the task of experts and informed analysts not solely politicians.

States, including Tanzania must identify places where to get money without raising taxes directly. Banks and government leaders must negotiate on how to facilitate soft loans.

While all major psychologically important measures must be taken in order to calm down the militant youths.

Other long term measures to be considered are housing, jobs, and how the Government can overcome an enormous deficit without inflicting pain to the citizenry, this is by balancing income proportional between locals and investors.

There is a need to give more confidence to the desperate youths that the nation is still undergoing certain processes that will empower them in order to avoid them slipping back into frustrations.

The confidence should be justified by actions and not mere words. This must include whatever has been discussed in many forums including the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

School leavers and fresh university graduates must be taken into consideration. And if possible the Government should inject funds to the National Service camps in order to improve production attract the youths there and reduce the “politics of stomachs”.

But even more important is the fact that there is a need to focus in production that is geared towards attracting major global markets in Asian countries, the U.S. and probably Europe.

All nations should remain reserved but must take special lessons from the Middle East unrest in order to take precautions once similar situations befall them. Tel: 0754-826272

Professor Saffari quits from the CUF

Professor Saffari quits from the CUF to an unknown destination

By Elias Mhegera
HAVING been disillusioned by party politics, Prof Abdallah Saffari now is planning to venture into another type of political activism.

Borrowing words of a great political philosopher Aristotle, that man is a political animal by nature, he says there are many ways in which he can pursue his political agenda like through academic networks, forums and publication of books and brochures.

During the exclusive interview with The Express shortly after announcing from the Civic United Front (CUF), he promises that he will even increase more participation in politics by providing legal guidelines and counseling which can eventually end up fostering a political agenda like the ongoing debate in the formulation of a new constitution in Tanzania.

The prominent lawyer has a stint of years in teaching human rights, international law and constitutional law and judicial procedures in conflict resolution like mediation, adjudication, arbitration and facilitation. He taught these at the Centre for Foreign Relations (CFR), Zanzibar University, and the Open University of Tanzania.

Holding the title of Director of Studies and Programmes at the CFR, the lawyer did not appease the political oligarchy that found him lacking the humbleness of high esteem that they would have expected of him at that sensitive centre and as a highly qualified academic.

It is in records that a good number of academics and civil servants that identified themselves with the opposition in the early stages of the multiparty making were either co-opted or subjected to many ways of psychological torture though in subtle forms.

Prof Saffari did not hesitate to inform journalists on Thursday last week how he lost his job at the CFR after he carried Prof Ibrahim Lipumba from the Kisutu Court in his car a Mercedes Benz with diplomatic registration. He was providing legal counsel to the CUF chairman after the Temeke fracas in 2001.

It is under these circumstances that many lecturers that had contested through the opposition decided to subside or re-join the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi in order to avoid trouble. The difference is though, only few have made it to the top after going back to the party which is currently ravaged with serious internal strives.

For instance there was Dr Festus Limbu who ran for the Magu constituency through the National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR) in 1995 just to rejoin the CCM shortly before the by-election in 1997 he rose up to the deputy ministerial post, another in the same style is Dr Harrison Mwakyembe and Dr Masumbuko Lamwai.

The Faculty of Law of the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), was once a centre for political strategies for the opposition in collaboration with some few lecturers in the department of political science like Prof Mohabe Nyirabu and Prof Mwesiga Baregu.

Today only a few lecturers can be heard uttering strong political statements that might not sound sweet to the political oligarchy. With Dr Lamwai working for the CCM as a legal counsel, Dr Mwakyembe striving to strike a balance between radical politics characteristic of the academics and the humbleness interwoven within the guise of ‘collective responsibility’ and ‘party discipline’, he has indeed difficult time to match the two.

Prof Saffari is not a man to be underestimated at any rate because he has stood firm giving regular comments to the media whenever he is requested to do so. It is clear that the media has a big contribution in changing the political scenario in this country, therefore informed comments from people of his caliber cannot be underrated.

His long political ally and fellow academic Prof Lipumba has already commented that his party has lost nothing in the absence of Saffari because he ceased to appear in any party function for al most two years now.

Even if its is a blow for the CUF, but Saffari has vowed not to join CCM, quite opposite to what a distinguished academic Dr Walid Kaborou who had chosen to work under the Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA) finally called it quit and rejoin the ruling CCM.

Academics have been silenced in so many ways to the extent that up to now only Dr Sengodo Mvungi is still raising his voice but not at the ‘Hill’ as the University of Dar es Salaam is also known, but at the non existing University of Bagamoyo which is still in the womb.

This trend of a clandestine clamp against the academics that chose to support or work in alliance with the opposition has had adverse effects to their survival because it created political opportunism which is unhealthy particularly if done by highly trained professionals.

Therefore it was a bit surprising to see Prof Kulikoyela Kahigi vying for the parliamentary post through Chadema in the Bukombe constituency after so many years of absence of such academics in the opposition. In the recent past the opposition was identified as a camp of the disgruntled politicians who had failed to make it to the echelons via the CCM, today after the resounding results last year during the general election that will no longer be the case.

There is positive trend towards the opposition while CCM is still trying to recover from the wounds of big losses of seats and startling results in the presidential race. With this kind of situation it is expected that academics and other people who had decided to shun away from active politics might decide to swim back in the political game.

Prof Saffari who has vowed to play his role through essays, public lecturers and networking might find himself back in party politics. During his press conference with journalists in his office he explained at length that the CUF was losing its appeal, thus he chose to drop before it reached its final anchorage of collapse.

The truth of the matter is very soon some political parties will disappear after they have failed to function in the turbulent nature of politics which during the last year’s election saw two parties re-solidifying themselves, namely Chadema, and NCCR, the ruling CCM has already sensed a threat, it is looking for a re-birth, thus recent harsh statements from its youth wing (UVCCM) on the payment of a hoax company Dowans.

Why intra family killings?

PHOTO: Please visit me for psycho-social counselling

By Elias Mhegera

A spate of intra-family killings in Tanzania whose trend borders on the fashionable has shocked observers, leaving them flabbergasted as to what has befallen the family institution.

At least ten cases related to intra family killings have been reported since July 1, 2010, fourteen days ago. Reports have been coming in from all over the country.

There have been all sorts of violence reported. Men killing their wives, mothers poisoning their kids, children killing their parents or at best choose suicide as a last resort. The coincidence of the deaths prompted The Express, to conduct a quick survey.

A doctor and lecturer at the Hubert Kairuki Memorial University (HKMU), who however, did not want his name to appear in print said that there are many factors which have contributed to this sad upsurge. He attributes this trend to the lack of psycho-social counseling centres.

The doctor asserts that many people whom we work and live with have mental illnesses. These illnesses can include diseases or conditions affecting the brain that influences the way a person thinks, feels, behaves or relates to others and his or her surroundings.

He admits that unfortunately the community in general and the government specifically has not done enough to help this group of people at their time of need.

He further adds that while the government has failed to deal with people with apparent mental illnesses, it is even more difficult to deal with those who have milder forms of mental aberrations.

“Although the symptoms of mental illness can range from mild to severe and are different depending on the type of mental illness, a person with an untreated mental illness often is unable to cope with life's daily routines and demands,” said the doctor.

He attributes the recent trend to the fact that lifestyle and intra-family conflicts are complicated by hardships in life, while there are no emergency “shock absorbers” to calm down the affected.

He elaborated that although the exact cause of most mental illnesses is not known, it is becoming clear through research that many of these conditions are caused by a combination of genetic, biological, psychological and environmental factors.

One thing is for sure, he says, mental illness is not the result of personal weakness or a character-flaw but is a multifaceted problem. For example it can be hereditary: many mental illnesses run in families.

His point of departure is that some families admit this problem and take it seriously, while other families tend to hide it because they think it might bring dishonour to the family.

“It is true that families might know the problem, but they would prefer to keep it secret. The case is the same as that of other inherited cases like sickle cell anemia. “Who is prepared in Tanzania to lose bride price simply because his daughter is an anaemic (sickler)?” questioned the doctor.

Genes contain instructions for the function of each cell in the body and are responsible for how we look, act, and think. But, just because your mother or father may have a mental illness doesn't mean you are bound to have one.

Hereditary just means that you are more likely to have the condition than if you didn't have an affected family member.

Experts believe that many mental conditions are linked to problems in multiple genes—not just one, as with many diseases—which is why a person inherits a susceptibility to mental disorder, but doesn't always develop the condition.

The doctor suggests that disorder itself occurs from the interaction of these genes and other factors—such as psychological trauma and environmental stresses—which can influence, or trigger, the illness in a person who has inherited a susceptibility to it.

“Biologically,” goes on the doctor, “some mental illnesses have been linked to an abnormal balance of special chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells in the brain communicate with each other”.

He further says that if these chemicals are out of balance or are not working properly; messages may not make it to the brain correctly, leading to symptoms of mental illness. In addition, defects in or injury to certain areas of the brain also can be linked to some mental conditions.

Assistant lecturer in psychology and counselor from the University of Dar es Salaam, Chris Mauki says that it is evident that the scarcity of counseling centres is a major contributor to these sad events.

“We need special skills in order to handle desperate people in their time of mental lapse, but in most cases there are no immediate intervention, and the immediate relatives are prone to be affected if they do not know how and when to intervene,” says Mauki.

He says that due to difficulties a good number of people with whom we work and share many things are likely to undergo mild forms of mental illness. He adds that in cities like Dar es Salaam where the life is fast coupled with the heat such cases are most likely to supersede other regions.

Apart from economic hardships Mauki cites excessive aggression to be another cause of intra-killings. He says that people differ on how they tackle external confrontations to the extent that those with excessive aggression are likely to behave wildly once they are provoked.

He also considers social factors to be important due to the fact that educated people have less chance of homicidal or suicidal tendencies. This is due to the fact less-educated people tend to be affected more by prejudices, unfounded beliefs and superstitions.

Family conflicts due to fights for meagre resources like inheritance could turn out to be a real war in a family where off-springs are not well prepared to handle their future lives in the absence of parents.

From the Institute of Social Work Daud Chanila who is an assistant lecturer and the coordinator of the HIV/Aids counseling centre at the institute says homicide is a multifaceted process.

“In the first place there is close relationship between suicide and homicide, those who can kill others can just as well kill themselves at their time of mental lapses,” says the social worker-cum-counselor.

People do kill because there are no preventive measures in place and because we do not intervene in their time of need. Therefore, prolonged psychological traumas, loss of hope, and lack of intimacy could lead the victims to kill their closer relatives, siblings and even life partners.

He quotes the sociologist David Émile Durkheim to have identified intimacy as one of the basic demands just like food, shelter or water. Therefore, children from separated families are the most affected because they cannot get the double intimacy of both parents.

Single parents are always much too preoccupied by the search for daily bread which in a way denies their siblings intimacy that is after all a basic right. He claims that those who were denied intimacy in their early childhood are most likely to develop aberrant behavior in their later lives.

Moreover lifestyle, media, films or videos could create an artificial life style, leading to “copy and paste” crimes, experts assert.

Journalists should stand for their rights

Hey Mr IGP are you still Mwema or you have changed into something else what are your guys doing?

By Elias Mhegera
The Eastern Africa Journalists Association (EAJA) has condemned the Wednesday (26 January 2011) attack on the Zanzibari TV journalist, Munir Zakaria, by a group of Zanzibar Council Municipal Council policemen.

In a statement that was circulated by Tervil Okoko, who is the EAJAs director of advocacy and research the act was not expected in country which was boasting of championing democracy.

According to EAJA affiliate, Tanzania Union of Journalists (TUJ), Munir who works with Channel Ten TV station in the semi-autonomous Zanzibar Island was attacked and badly beaten up by the policemen.

The journalist was attacked while taking pictures of an evacuation operation by the municipal council at the Darajani area of the island. The policemen had accused him of inciting the residents against the evacuation exercise.

EAJA secretary-general Omar Faruk Osman, condemn the act as being retrogressive in the zeal for freedom of the media. “We condemn this act of aggression and violence in the strongest terms possible, and we demand justice as we call upon the authorities in Zanzibar to ensure those responsible for this attack are brought to book,” he said.

He advised the Zanzibar goverbemtn to refrain from intimidating journalists when they are conducting their activities, “this journalist was on duty and his calling and profession must also be respected just like others. This act violates the freedom of the press,” he added.

The journalist was arrested and taken to the Municipal Offices where he was ordered by the Municipal Director, Rashid Ali Juma, to surrender his camera, tape recorder and video camera failure to which he would be detained for “having filed a TV report on the Darajani conflict”.

He was released two hours later after thorough interrogation. Munir later told EAJA he had already filed a complaint with the police at the Malindi police station.

This is the second a journalist to be attacked in Tanzania in less than one month. Early January, regular police officers beat up Tanzania Daima newspaper journalist, Ali Lityawi, and seized his camera allegedly for taking picture without permission in Shinyanga region